Ground Water

Water for the eastern half of the Reservation is provided by the Green Bay water utility, Central Brown County Water Authority (CBCWA), Village of Hobart, Oneida Utilities, and private wells. Water for the western half of the Reservation is from Oneida Utilities and private wells. All of the surrounding Brown County municipalities, except Hobart receive their water from Lake Michigan. In 2006 water usage of the communities now receiving water from Lake Michigan was approximately 3 billion gallons.

Groundwater Sources

There are two major sources of groundwater for the Oneida Nation. These are identified as an upper aquifer (approximately 100 to 300 feet below surface (fbs)) called the St. Peter Sandstone, and a lower aquifer (approximately 400 to 800 fbs) called the Elk Mound group. Each has it own characteristics and capacity to produce groundwater. 

*The area of St. Peter Sandstone within the Reservation is estimated to have 1.1 billion gallons of water available per year. 

*This is an estimate based on average rainfall, recharge & published literature.

*In 2007, 11 high capacity wells in the St. Peter Sandstone, in Reservation boundaries, withdrew 26.7 million gallons. 

*There are over 1100 private wells in the Reservation boundaries in this aquifer. 

*The area of Elk Mound group aquifer within the Reservation is estimated to have 1.2 billion gallons of water available per year. 

*This is an estimate based on average rainfall, recharge & published literature.

*In 2007, 8 high capacity wells in the lower aquifer were licensed in the Reservation boundaries and withdrew 176.2 million gallons. 

*Wells that go dry in Outagamie County require replacement and special construction consideration due to arsenic. 

Groundwater Protection

*Tribe conducted a Wellhead Protection Study – completed December 1994. 

*Tribe enacted Chapter 43 Well Abandonment Law – October 1994. 

*Tribe is participating in aquifer rebound study (effect of CBCWA) with the Casino Well (rebound of 50+ feet – original level). 

*Groundwater protection is a multi-faceted issue requiring a consideration of Public Health & Safety, Resource Management & Protection, and Land Use & Urban Growth & Planning. 

For more information about groundwater, please call Victoria Flowers at (920) 869-4548.